Angola

 

Angola is located in southwestern Africa, with a coastline that stretches over 1,600 km along the Atlantic Ocean. The country has a total land area of approximately 1.25 million square kilometers, making it the seventh largest country in Africa.

Angola is bordered by several countries, including the Democratic Republic of Congo to the north, Zambia to the east, and Namibia to the south. The country also shares a short border with the Republic of Congo to the north.

Angola has a diverse population of approximately 32 million people, and its capital and largest city is Luanda. The country has a rich history and culture, and is known for its natural resources, including oil, diamonds, and minerals.

 

Angola and KAZA TFCA

Angola is one of the member countries of the Kavango-Zambezi Transfrontier Conservation Area (KAZA TFCA), which is a cross-border conservation area that spans five countries in southern Africa: Angola, Botswana, Namibia, Zambia, and Zimbabwe.

As a member of KAZA TFCA, Angola has committed to working with the other member countries to conserve and manage the natural resources and ecosystems in the region, including wildlife, rivers, forests, and wetlands. This involves coordinating efforts to combat poaching, illegal wildlife trade, and habitat destruction, as well as promoting sustainable tourism, community participation, and the sharing of scientific and technical expertise.

Angola's participation in KAZA TFCA is significant because it provides an opportunity for the country to contribute to regional conservation efforts and benefit from cross-border collaboration and cooperation. It also enables Angola to leverage the expertise and resources of other member countries to address its own conservation challenges and promote sustainable development.

Angola Information

Angola is a country located in southwestern Africa, bordered by Namibia to the south, Zambia to the east, the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the north, and the Atlantic Ocean to the west. The capital and largest city is Luanda.

Angola has a population of approximately 32 million people and covers an area of over 1.2 million square kilometers, making it the seventh-largest country on the African continent. Portuguese is the official language, although many other languages are spoken throughout the country, including Umbundu, Kimbundu, and Kikongo.


 

Geography

Landscape of Angola

The terrain in Angola is varied, with a combination of coastal plains, highlands, plateaus, and mountains. The coastal plain is located along the Atlantic coast, and is characterized by sandy beaches, lagoons, and mangrove swamps. Inland, the terrain rises into a series of highlands and plateaus, including the Bié Plateau and the Huila Plateau.

The highest point in Angola is Mount Moco, which stands at 2,620 meters (8,596 feet) above sea level. The mountain is located in the central highlands of Angola, in the Huambo Province.

Angola has several major rivers, including the Congo River, which forms the country's northern border with the Democratic Republic of Congo. Other major rivers in Angola include the Cuanza, the Kwanza, and the Zambezi. These rivers are important sources of water and transportation for the country.

Angola has a tropical climate, with distinct wet and dry seasons. The wet season generally runs from November to April, while the dry season lasts from May to October. The country experiences significant rainfall during the wet season, particularly in the north and central regions. The coastal regions of Angola are cooler and drier, with average temperatures ranging from 15°C to 22°C (59°F to 72°F) throughout the year.

Despite its varied geography and climate, Angola is home to a diverse range of flora and fauna. The country has several national parks and nature reserves, including the Kissama National Park, which is home to elephants, lions, and other large mammals. The country also has a diverse range of bird species, including several endemic species that are found nowhere else in the world.

History

History of Angola

The history of Angola is complex and multifaceted, shaped by a combination of indigenous cultures, European colonization, and political upheaval.

Before the arrival of Europeans, Angola was home to a variety of ethnic groups, including the Ovimbundu, Ambundu, and Bakongo. These groups were organized into small kingdoms and chiefdoms, with a mix of pastoral, agricultural, and fishing economies.

The first Europeans to arrive in Angola were Portuguese explorers, who landed on the coast in the late 15th century. The Portuguese established trade relations with local leaders, and by the 16th century had established a foothold in the region, primarily for the slave trade. Angola became a major source of enslaved people for the Americas, with an estimated 4 million people taken from Angola between the 16th and 19th centuries.

In the late 19th century, Portugal declared Angola a colony, and began to establish a more formal system of governance. The Portuguese introduced cash-crop agriculture, including coffee and cotton, and built infrastructure such as railways and ports. However, the vast majority of Angolans were excluded from political power and economic opportunities.

In the mid-20th century, a nationalist movement emerged in Angola, calling for independence from Portugal. In 1961, the Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA) launched a guerrilla war against Portuguese rule. 

The MPLA emerged as the dominant force in the struggle for independence, and in 1975, Angola gained independence from Portugal. However, the MPLA's victory sparked a civil war, as UNITA and FNLA rejected the MPLA's legitimacy and continued to fight for control of the country.

During the civil war, which lasted from 1975 to 2002, Angola was devastated by violence, displacement, and economic decline. The MPLA, with support from the Soviet Union and Cuba, eventually emerged as the victor, and the country has been ruled by the MPLA ever since.

In recent years, Angola has undergone significant political and economic changes. In 2017.

Culture

People of Angola

The culture of Angola is a blend of indigenous traditions, Portuguese colonial influences, and the legacy of the country's political and social history.

One of the most prominent features of Angolan culture is its music, which draws on a diverse range of styles and influences. Traditional Angolan music includes semba, kizomba, and kuduro, while contemporary Angolan musicians draw on a variety of genres, including hip-hop and reggae. Angolan music is known for its rhythms and percussion, as well as its use of stringed instruments such as the kora and the guitar.

Dance is also an important part of Angolan culture, with traditional dances such as the semba and kizomba still widely performed at festivals and social gatherings. The Angolan Carnival, which takes place in February, is a major cultural event, featuring music, dance, and colorful costumes.

In addition to music and dance, Angolan culture is also known for its art and crafts. Traditional Angolan crafts include pottery, basket weaving, and wood carving, while contemporary Angolan artists are gaining international recognition for their work in painting, sculpture, and other mediums.

Religion is also an important part of Angolan culture, with a majority of the population adhering to Christianity, particularly Catholicism and Protestantism. Traditional indigenous beliefs and practices also continue to play a role in many aspects of Angolan life.

Food is another important aspect of Angolan culture, with a cuisine that blends Portuguese and African influences. Popular dishes include funge, a type of cornmeal porridge, and moamba de galinha, a spicy chicken stew.

Finally, sports are an important part of Angolan culture, particularly football (soccer). The Angolan national team has achieved some success in international competition, and the sport is widely played and followed throughout the country.

Economy

Industry and Resources

The economy of Angola is heavily dependent on its natural resources, particularly oil and diamonds, which together account for over 90% of the country's export earnings. Other important sectors of the economy include agriculture, fisheries, and construction.

Since the end of the civil war in 2002, Angola has experienced significant economic growth, driven primarily by the oil industry. In 2020, Angola was the second-largest oil producer in sub-Saharan Africa, after Nigeria. However, the global decline in oil prices in recent years has had a negative impact on the Angolan economy.

The diamond industry is also an important part of the Angolan economy, with the country being one of the largest producers of diamonds in the world. However, the industry has been plagued by issues such as corruption, illegal mining, and smuggling.

Agriculture is an important sector of the Angolan economy, employing a significant portion of the population. The country has the potential to be a major agricultural producer, with a variety of crops including coffee, cotton, cassava, and maize. However, the sector has been hampered by a lack of investment and infrastructure.

Fisheries are also an important part of the Angolan economy, with the country having one of the richest fishing grounds in the world. However, overfishing and illegal fishing have had a negative impact on the sustainability of the industry.

In recent years, the Angolan government has undertaken significant economic reforms aimed at diversifying the economy and reducing its dependence on oil. These reforms have included efforts to improve the business environment, attract foreign investment, and promote private sector development. However, significant challenges remain, including high levels of poverty and inequality, and a lack of infrastructure in many parts of the country.

Sustainability in Angola

Angola faces several sustainability challenges, including deforestation, soil degradation, water scarcity, and biodiversity loss. However, the country has taken steps to promote sustainable development and address these challenges.

One of the key initiatives is Angola's National Strategy for Sustainable Development (ENDS), which was launched in 2018. ENDS sets out a vision for sustainable development in Angola and identifies priority areas for action, including the conservation and sustainable use of natural resources, the promotion of renewable energy, and the improvement of environmental governance.

Angola has also made progress in promoting sustainable agriculture through initiatives such as the Family Agriculture Program, which supports small-scale farmers with training, credit, and technical assistance to improve their productivity and livelihoods. The country has also implemented a forest management program to promote sustainable forestry practices and combat deforestation.

In terms of renewable energy, Angola has significant potential for hydropower and solar energy, and the government has set a target to increase the share of renewable energy in the country's electricity mix to 60% by 2025.

Finally, Angola is also a member of several international sustainability initiatives, including the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and the Paris Agreement on climate change. By participating in these initiatives, Angola can access funding, technical assistance, and best practices to support its sustainability efforts.

 


 

Verantwortlich: Michael Dieckmann - Keywords.de GmbH - Adams-Lehmann-Str. 56 - 80797 München Email: info@kaza.org

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